Purpose of this Review
Chronic diabetic nephropathy and renal dysfunction from other causes are common in hospitalized patients with diabetes. Available diabetes management guidelines aim to reduce hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, both independent risk factors for hospital outcomes. Renal dysfunction, which increases the risk of hypoglycemia, adds a layer of complexity in diabetes management. Therefore, modified glucose goals and treatment regimens may be required.
Recent prospective and retrospective studies provide direction on safe insulin therapy for diabetes inpatients with renal compromise. Studies of newer diabetes pharmacotherapy provide data on oral agent use in the inpatient setting.
Diabetes therapy should be modified with changing renal function. Glucose management in patients on peritoneal or hemodialysis is challenging. Reducing weight-based doses of insulin and use of newer insulins can reduce hypoglycemia risk. Safety and efficacy of DPP-4 inhibitors has been evaluated in the hospital and nursing home setting. Metformin, SGLT-2 inhibitors, and GLP1 receptor agonists can be used in several stages of renal dysfunction prior to and at discharge.