Recommended nutritional practices for optimal health, weight loss and maintenance, and sports performance for everyone are still being currently debated. Diabetes adds additional elements to managing exercise effectively and ensuring that the body has adequate nutrients and fuels to perform optimally. Nutritional recommendations differ somewhat based on an individual’s goal for exercising with diabetes, which may focus on diabetes and overall health benefits, weight control, athletic performance, or a combination of these. Healthy eating and a higher fiber intake will benefit health, but individuals with diabetes must also understand the impact the types and quantities of carbohydrates and other macronutrients have on their glycemic control. Weight loss and maintenance are best accomplished through lifestyle changes that include both improvements in diet and greater physical activity participation. Athletic performance and physical activity participation are greatly affected by nutrition, including adequate intake of macronutrients to replete muscle glycogen, micronutrients to optimize metabolism, water and other fluids to maintain hydration, and more. Nutritional best practices and recommendations are given in all of these areas in this chapter.