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12-21-2017 | Cardiovascular disorders | Article

Hypertensive diabetic patients: incidence of cardiovascular and renal outcomes in a historical cohort over 11 years

Journal:
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Andréa Cristina Sousa, Thiago Veiga Jardim, Thiago Olivera Costa, Fabrício Galdino Magalhães, Marcos Paulo Marinho Montelo, Weimar K. Barroso Souza, Paulo César Brandão Veiga Jardim, Ana Luiza Lima Sousa

Publisher: BioMed Central

Abstract

Background

Diabetics have increased risks for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality, reducing their life expectancy by up to 15 years. Type 2 diabetes mellitus specifically increases the risk for cardiovascular mortality nearly fivefold. When hypertension is combined with diabetes, the risk of CVD is even greater.

Objective

Identify non-fatal cardiovascular outcomes and renal function impairment in a cohort of hypertensive patients in regular treatment in a reference treatment center, over 11 years of follow-up.

Methods

Historical cohort of hypertensive patients in regular treatment for at least 11 years in a specialized service for hypertension treatment. The exposed group was hypertensive diabetic patients at the beginning of the cohort, and the non-exposed group had hypertension without diabetes. The cohort began in 2004, with follow-ups in 2009 and 2015. Variables used: gender, race, age, physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking, blood pressure, body mass index, glycated hemoglobin, diabetes and hypertension diagnosis times, treatment time in specialized service, non-fatal cardiovascular outcomes, and renal impairment assessed by creatinine clearance.

Results

139 patients participated in the study (55 diabetic hypertensive; 84 non-diabetic hypertensive), with an initial (2004) mean hypertension treatment time of 5.8 years. Females were the majority (75.5%) in both groups. Groups were similar regarding socio-demographic variables, but the group of hypertensive diabetic patients had higher frequency of obesity and uncontrolled BP, which persisted in all follow-ups. In 11 years of follow-up (2004–2015), the diabetic group had more cardiovascular events, with increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (RR 95% CI 1.6 12.2–95.0), stroke (RR 95% CI 1.3–6.1 27.7) and complications requiring hospitalization (RR 95% CI 1.6 2.2–3.0). Worsened renal function occurred more often in the non-exposed group, but in the end, the proportion of renal function loss was similar between groups.

Conclusions

Exposure to type 2 diabetes increased the risk of new cardiovascular outcomes over 11 years of follow-up of hypertensive patients. Diabetes by itself increased the risk of cardiovascular outcomes, justifying more intensive actions in this population.

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