SGLT2-I in the Hospital Setting: Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Other Benefits and Concerns
- Current Diabetes Reports
Authors: Joshua A. Levine, Susan L. Karam, Grazia Aleppo
Publisher: Springer US
Purpose of Review
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are the newest class of antihyperglycemic agents. They are increasingly being prescribed in the outpatient diabetic population. In this review, we examine the risks and benefits of continuation and initiation of SGLT2 inhibitors in the inpatient setting.
There are currently no published data regarding safety and efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitor use in the hospital. Outpatient data suggests that SGLT2 inhibitors have low hypoglycemic risk. They also decrease systolic blood pressure and can prevent cardiovascular death. The EMPA-REG study also showed a decrease in admissions for acute decompensated heart failure. There have been increasing cases of diabetic ketoacidosis, and specifically the euglycemic manifestation, associated with SGLT2 inhibitors use. We present two cases of inpatient SGLT2 inhibitor use, one of continuation of outpatient therapy and one of new initiation of therapy. We then discuss potential risks and methods to mitigate these as well as benefits of these medications in the inpatient setting.
We cautiously suggest the use of SGLT2 inhibitors in the hospital. However, these must be used judiciously and the practitioner must be aware of euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis and its risk factors in this population.