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09-12-2018 | Retinopathy | Article

The association of smoking and risk of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis

Journal: Endocrine

Authors: Xiaoling Cai, Yifei Chen, Wenjia Yang, Xueying Gao, Xueyao Han, Linong Ji

Publisher: Springer US




To clarify the relevance between smoking and diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Published evidence were searched in MEDLINE and EMBASE from the databases began until Feb. 2017. Studies evaluating the association between smoking and diabetic retinopathy or evaluating the risk factors of diabetic retinopathy including smoking were included.


Totally 73 studies were identified, among which 19 studies included type 1 diabetes patients and 56 studies included type 2 diabetes patients. In type 1 diabetes, compare with non-smokers, the risk of diabetic retinopathy significantly increased in smokers (risk ratio (RR) = 1.23, 95% CI 1.14, 1.33, P < 0.001), and the risk of proliferative diabetic retinopathy also significantly increased in smokers (RR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.20, 1.81, P < 0.001). In type 2 diabetes, compare with non-smokers, the risk of diabetic retinopathy significantly decreased in smokers (RR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.86, 0.98, P = 0.02) and the risk of proliferative diabetic retinopathy also significantly decreased in smokers (RR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.61, 0.74, P < 0.001).


Compare with non-smokers, the risk of diabetic retinopathy significantly increased in smokers with type 1 diabetes while significantly decreased in smokers with type 2 diabetes. However, this result did not change the importance of smoking cessation for public health.
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