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03-16-2016 | Pregnancy | Review | Article

Management of Pregnant Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and the Consequences of Fetal Programming in Their Offspring

Current Diabetes Reports

Authors: Diane C. Berry, Kim Boggess, Quinetta B. Johnson

Publisher: Springer US


The obesity epidemic has fueled an epidemic of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women of childbearing age. This paper examines the state of the science on preconception and pregnancy management of women with type 2 diabetes to optimize outcomes for the women and their infants. In addition, the consequence of fetal programming as a result of suboptimal maternal glycemic control is discussed. The paper focuses on type 2 diabetes, not type 1 diabetes or gestational diabetes. Management of women with type 2 diabetes includes preconception counseling, preconception weight management and weight loss, proper weight gain during pregnancy, self-monitoring of blood glucose levels, medication, medical nutrition therapy, and exercise.

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