Purpose of Review
The objective of this review is to critically assess the contributing role of the gut microbiota in human obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D).
Experiments in animal and human studies have produced growing evidence for the causality of the gut microbiome in developing obesity and T2D. The introduction of high-throughput sequencing technologies has provided novel insight into the interpersonal differences in microbiome composition and function.
The intestinal microbiota is known to be associated with metabolic syndrome and related comorbidities. Associated diseases including obesity, T2D, and fatty liver disease (NAFLD/NASH) all seem to be linked to altered microbial composition; however, causality has not been proven yet. Elucidating the potential causal and personalized role of the human gut microbiota in obesity and T2D is highly prioritized.