Skip to main content

04-25-2018 | Obesity | Review | Article

Causes of Emotional Eating and Matched Treatment of Obesity

Journal: Current Diabetes Reports

Author: Tatjana van Strien

Publisher: Springer US


Purpose of the Review

Eating in response to negative emotions (EE) may be an explanatory factor of the weight regain of many dieters. This narrative review presents evidence on possible causes of EE and the association of EE with depression and obesity and discusses implications of these findings for the treatment of obesity.

Recent Findings

Possible causes of EE are high dietary restraint, poor interoceptive awareness, alexithymia, emotion dysregulation and a reversed hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) stress axis. EE may be the outcome of inadequate parenting or depressive feelings in interaction with genetic susceptibility. There is also robust evidence that EE is a mediator between depression and obesity.


The association of EE with depression and poor emotion regulation skills suggests that the treatment of obese people with high EE should not focus on calorie-restricted diets but on emotion regulation skills. The DEBQ (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire) enables such a matched treatment of obesity.
Langeveld M, DeVries H. The long-term effect of energy restricted diets for treating obesity. Obesity. 2015;23:1529–38. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1002/​oby.​21146.​ CrossRefPubMed
Mann T, Tomiyama J, Wesling E, Lew A, Samuels B, Chatman J. Medicare’s search for effective obesity treatments. Diets are not the answer. Am Psychol. 2007;62:220–33. CrossRefPubMed
Siahpush M, Tibbits M, Shaikh RA, Singh GK, Sikora Kessler A, Huang TT. Dieting increases the likelihood of subsequent obesity and BMI gain: results from a prospective study of an Australian national sample. Int J Behav Med. 2015;22(5):662–71. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s12529-015-9463-5.​ CrossRefPubMed
Van Strien T, Cebolla A, Etchemendy E, Gutiërez-Maldonado J, Ferrer-Garcia M, Botella C, et al. Emotional eating and food intake after sadness and joy. Appetite. 2013;66:20–5. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​appet.​2013.​02.​016. CrossRefPubMed
• Van Strien T, Donker MH, Ouwens MA. Is desire to eat in response to positive emotions an ‘obese’ eating style: Is Kummerspeck for some people a misnomer? Appetite. 2016;100:225–35. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​appet.​2016.​02.​035. This study shows that eating to positive emotions is a different construct than eating in response to negative emotions and that eating to positive emotions is not an ‘obese’ eating style. CrossRefPubMed
Goldsmith R, Joanisse D, Gallagher D, Pavlov K, Shamoon E, Leibel RL, et al. Effects of experimental weight perturbation on skeletal work efficiency, fuel utilization, and biochemistry in human subjects. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;298:R79–88. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1152/​ajpregu.​00053.​2009. CrossRefPubMed
Herman CP, Van Strien T, Polivy J. Undereating or eliminating overeating? Am Psychol. 2008;63:202–3. CrossRefPubMed
Heatherton TF, Herman CP, Polivy J. Effects of physical threat and ego threat on eating behavior. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1991;60:138–43. CrossRefPubMed
Herman CP, Polivy J. Anxiety, restraint and eating behavior. J Abnorm Psychol. 1975;84:666–72. CrossRef
Herman CP, Polivy J. Restrained eating. In: Stunkard AJ, editor. Obesity. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1980. p. 208–25.
Van Strien T, Frijters JER, Bergers GPA, Defares PB. The Dutch eating behaviour questionnaire (DEBQ) for assessment of restrained, emotional and external eating behaviour. Intern J Eat Disord. 1986;5:295–315. CrossRef
Gold PW, Chrousos GP. Organisation of the stress system and its dysregulation in melancholic and a-typical depression. High vs low CRH/NE states. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7:254–75. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1038/​sj.​mp.​4001032;. CrossRefPubMed
Van Strien T, Ouwens MA, Engel C, de Weerth C. Hunger, inhibitory control and distress-induced emotional eating. Appetite. 2014;79:124–33. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​appet.​2014.​04.​020. CrossRefPubMed
Polivy J, Herman CP. Dieting and bingeing. A causal analysis. Am Psychol. 1985;40(2):193–201. CrossRefPubMed
Van Strien T, Herman CP, Verheijden MW. Eating style, overeating and overweight in a representative Dutch sample: does external eating play a role? Appetite. 2009;52:380–7. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​appet.​2008.​11.​010. CrossRefPubMed
Van Strien T, Engels RCME, Van Leeuwe J, Snoek HM. The Stice model of overeating: tests in clinical and non-clinical samples. Appetite. 2005;4:205–13. CrossRef
Bruch H. Eating disorders. New York: Basic Books; 1973.
Dalman MF. Stress-induced obesity and the emotional nervous system. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2010;21:159–65. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​tem.​2009.​10.​004. CrossRef
Van Strien T, Roelofs K, de Weerth C. Cortisol reactivity and distress-induced emotional eating. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2013;38:677–84. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​psyneuen.​2012.​08.​008. CrossRefPubMed
Snoek HM, Engels RCME, Janssens JMAM, Van Strien T. Parental behaviour and adolescents’emotional eating. Appetite. 2007;4:223–30. CrossRef
Taylor GJ, JDA P, Bagby RM, Bourke MP. Relationships between alexithymia and psychological characteristics associated with eating disorders. J Psychsom Res. 1996;412:561–8. CrossRef
Jaffe M, Gullone E, Hughes EK. The roles of temperamental dispositions and perceived parenting behaviors in the use of two emotion regulation strategies in late childhood. J Appl Develop Psychol. 2009;31:47–56. CrossRef
Vandewalle J, Moens E, Braet V. Comprehending emotional eating in obese youngsters: the role of parental rejection and emotion regulation. Int J Obes. 2014;38:525–30. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1038/​ijo.​2013.​233. CrossRef
Vandewalle J, Moens E, Braet C. Can we link emotional eating with the emotion regulation skills of adolescents? Psychol Health. 2016;31(7):857–72. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1080/​08870446.​2016.​1149586. CrossRefPubMed
Morris AS, Silk JS, Steinberg L, Myers SS, Robinson L. The role of family context in the development of emotion regulation. Soc Dev. 2007;16:361–88. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
McDowell DJ, Kim M, O’Neil R, Parke RD. Children’s emotional regulation and social competence in middle childhood: the role of maternal and paternal interactive style. Marriage Fam Rev. 2002;34:345–65. CrossRef
Van Strien T, Ouwens MA. Effects of distress, alexithymia and impulsivity on eating. Eat Behav. 2007;8:251–7. CrossRefPubMed
Lu Q, Tao F, Hou F, Zhanh Z, Ren L. Emotion regulation, emotional eating and the energy-rich dietary pattern. A population-based study in Chinese adolescents. Appetite. 2016;99:149–56. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​appet.​2016.​01.​011. CrossRefPubMed
Spoor STP, Bekker MJ, Van Strien T, van Heck GL. Relations between negative affect, coping and emotional eating. Appetite. 2007;48:368–76. CrossRefPubMed
Talbot LS, Maguen S, Epel ES, Metzler TJ, Neijlan TC. Posttraumatic stress disorders is associated with emotional eating. J Trauma Stress. 2013;26:521–5. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1002/​jts.​21824. CrossRefPubMed
Michopoulos V, Powers A, Moore C, Villarreal S, Kessler KJ, Bradley B. The mediating role of emotional dysregulation and depression on the relationship between childhood trauma exposure and emotional eating. Appetite. 2015;91:129–36. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​appet.​2015.​03.​036. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Gluck ME, Geliebter A, Hung J, Yahav E. Cortisol, Hunger, and desire to binge eat following a cold stress test in women with binge eating disorder. Psychosom Med. 2004;66:876–81. CrossRefPubMed
Haedt-Matt A, Keel PK, Racine SE, Burt SA, Hu JY, Boker S, et al. Do emotional eating urges regulate affect? Concurrent and prospective associations and implications for risk models of binge eating. Int J Eat Disord. 2014;47(8):874–7. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1002/​eat.​22247. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Cicchetti D, Rogisch FA. Diverse patterns of neuroendocrine activity in maltreated children. Dev Psychopathol. 2001;1:677–93. CrossRef
Yehuda R, Bierer LM, Schmeidler ER, Aferiat DH, Breslau I, Dolan S. Low cortisol and risk for PTSD in adult offspring of holocaust survivors. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157:1252–9. CrossRefPubMed
Epel E, Jimenez S, Brownell K, Stroud L, Stoney C, Niaura R. Are stress eaters at risk for the metabolic syndrome ? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1032:208–10. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1196/​annals.​1314.​022. CrossRefPubMed
Raspopow K, Abizaid A, Mathesen K, Anisman H. Psychological stressor effects on cortisol and ghlerin in emotional and non-emotional eaters: influence on anger and shame. Horm Behav. 2010;58(4):677–84. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​yhbeh.​2010.​06.​003. CrossRefPubMed
Tomiyama AJ, Dallman MF, Epel ES. Comfort food is comforting to those most stressed: evidence of the chronic stress response network in high stress women. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2011;36:1513–9. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​psyneuen.​2011.​04.​005. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Kirschbaum C, Pirke KM, Hellhammer DH. The trier social stress test –a tool for investigating psychosocial stress responses in a laboratory setting. Neuropsychobiology. 1993;28:76–81. CrossRefPubMed
Tryon MS, DeCant R, Laugero KD. Having your cake and eating it too. A habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress exposure and acute stress-induced cortisol hypo-responsiveness. Physiol Behav. 2013;114-115:32–7. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​physbeh.​2013.​02.​018. CrossRefPubMed
Wingenfeld K, Kuehl LK, Boeker A, Schultebraucks K, Ritter K, Hellmann-Regen J, et al. Stress reactivity and its effects on subsequent food intake in depressed and healthy women with and without adverse childhood experiences. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2017;80:122–30. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​psyneuen.​2017.​03.​014. CrossRefPubMed
Van Strien T. Nederlandse Vragenlijst voor eetgedrag (NVE). Handleiding. [Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Manual]. Amsterdam: Hogrefe; 2015.
Heatherton TF, Baumeister RF. Binge eating as escape from self-awareness. Psych Bull. 1991;110:86–108. CrossRef
Slochower JA. Excessive eating. The role of emotions and the environment. New York: Human sciences press, inc.; 1983.
Wagner DD, Boswell RG, Kelley WM, Heatherton TF. Inducing negative affect increases the reward value of appetizing foods in dieters. J Cogn Neurosci. 2012;24(7):1625–33. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1162/​jocn_​a_​00238. CrossRefPubMed
Demos KE, Heatherton TF, Kelley WM. Individual differences in nucleus accumbens activity to food and sexual images predict weight gain and sexual behavior. J Neurosci. 2012;32(16):5549–52. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1523/​JNEUROSCI.​5958-11.​2012. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Barrada JR, van Strien T, Cebolla A. Internal structure and measurement invariance of the Dutch eating behavior questionnaire (DEBQ) in a (nearly) representative Dutch community sample. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2016;24(6):503–9. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1002/​erv.​2448. CrossRefPubMed
Van Strien T, Schippers GM, Cox WM. On the relationship between emotional and external eating behaviour. Addict Behav. 1995;20:585–94. CrossRefPubMed
Ouwens MA, Van Strien T, Van Leeuwe JFJ. The dual pathway model of overeating: replication and extension with actual food consumption. Appetite. 2009;52:234–7. CrossRefPubMed
• Paans NPG, Bot M, Van Strien T, Brouwer IA, Visser M, Penninx WJH. Eating styles in major depressive disorder: Results from a large-scale study. J Psychiatr Res. 2018;97:38–46. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​jpsychires.​2017.​11.​003. This study shows that emotional eating and not external eating is associated with depression diagnosis and severity of depression. CrossRefPubMed
Rodin J. Current status of the internal-external hypothesis for obesity. What went wrong. Am Psychol. 1981;36:361–72. CrossRefPubMed
Neel J. Diabetes mellitus: a ‘thrifty’ genotype rendered detrimental by progress? Am J Hum Genet. 1962;14:353–62. PubMedPubMedCentral
Van Strien T, Oosterveld P. The Children’s DEBQ (DEBQ-C) for assessment of restrained, emotional and external eating in 7-12 year old children. Int J Eat Disord. 2009;41:72–81. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1002/​eat.​ CrossRef
Koenders P, van Strien T. Emotional eating rather than lifestyle behavior drives weight gain in a prospective study in 1562 employees. J Occup Environ Med. 2011;53(11):1287–93. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1097/​JOM.​0b013e31823078a2​. CrossRefPubMed
Sung J, Lee Y. Relationship of eating behaviour to long-term weight change and body mass index. The healthy twin study. Eat Weight Disord. 2009;14:e98-e105. CrossRef
Van Strien T, Herman CP, Verheijden MW. Eating style, overeating and weight gain: a prospective 2-year follow-up study in a representative Dutch sample. Appetite. 2012;59:782–9. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​appet.​2012.​08.​009. CrossRefPubMed
Van Strien T, Rookus MA, Bergers GPA, Frijters JER, Defares PB. Life events, emotional eating and change in body mass index. Int J Obes. 1986;10(1):29–35. PubMed
Van Strien T, Koenders PA. Effect of emotional eating and short sleep duration on weight gain in female employees. J Occup Environ Med. 2014;56(6):659–66. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1097/​JOM.​0000000000000172​. CrossRefPubMed
Sleddens EF, Kremers SP, Thijs C. The Children's eating behaviour questionnaire. Factorial validity and association with body mass index in Dutch children aged 6– 7. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008;5:49. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1186/​1479-5868-5-49. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Klump KL. Puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders: a review of human and animal studies. Horm Behav. 2013;64(2):399–410. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​yhbeh.​2013.​02.​019. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Klump KL, O’Connor SM, Hildebrandt BA, Keel PK, Neale M, Sisk CL, et al. Differential effects of estrogen and progesterone on genetic and environmental risk for emotional eating in women. Clin Psychol Sci. 2016;4(5):895–908. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1177/​2167702616641637​. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Van Strien T, Snoek HM, van der Zwaluw CS, Engels RCME. Parental control and the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) interaction on emotional eating in adolescence. Appetite. 2010;54:255–61. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​appet.​2009.​ CrossRefPubMed
Van Strien T, van der Zwaluw CS, Engels RCME. Emotional eating in adolescents: a gene (SLC6A4/5-HTT)-depressive feelings interaction analysis. J Psychiatr Res. 2010;44(15):1035–42. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​jpsychires.​2010.​03.​012. CrossRefPubMed
Gluskin BS, Mickey BJ. Genetic variation and dopamine D2 receptor availability: a systematic review and meta-analysis of human in vivo molecular imagining studies. Transl Psychiatry. 2016;6:e747. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1038/​tp.​2016.​22. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Hariri A, Holmes A. Genetics of emotional regulation: the role of the serotonin transporter in neural function. Trends Cogn Sci. 2005;10:182–91. CrossRef
Leibovitz SF, Alexander JT. Hypothalamic serotonin in control of eating behavior, meal size and body weight. Biol Psychiatry. 1998;44:851–64. CrossRef
Gressier F, Calati R, Serretti A. 5-HTTLPR and gender differences in affective disorders: a systematic review. J Affect Disord. 2016 Jan 15;190:193–207. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​jad.​2015.​09.​027. CrossRefPubMed
Belsky J, Jonassaint C, Pluess M, Stanton M, Brummett B, Williams R. Vulnerability genes or plasticity genes. Mol Psychiatry. 2009;14:746–54. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
• Molle DM, Fatemi H, Dagnhetr A, Levitan RD, Silveira PP, Dube L. Gene and environment interaction: Is the differential susceptibility hypothesis relevant for obesity. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2017;73:326–39. the outcome of this review suggests that Belsky’s differential susceptibility hypothesis also applies to the GxE interaction on eating styles and obesity. CrossRef
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Publication; 2013. CrossRef
Luppino FS, de Wit LM, Bouvy PF, Stijnen T, Cuijpers P, Penninx BW, et al. Overweight, obesity, and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67(3):220–9. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1001/​archgenpsychiatr​y.​2010.​2. CrossRefPubMed
Clum GA, Rice JC, Broussard M, Johnson CC, Webber LS. Associations between depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, eating styles, exercise and body mass index in women. J Behav Med. 2014;37(4):577–86. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s10865-013-9526-5. CrossRefPubMed
Goldschmidt AB, Crosby RD, Engel SG, Crow SJ, Cao L, Peterson CB, et al. Affect and eating behavior in obese adults with and without elevated depression symptoms. Int J Eat Disord. 2014;47(3):281–6. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1002/​eat.​22188. CrossRefPubMed
Konttinen H, Männistö S, Sarlio-Lähteenkorva S, Silventoinen K, Haukkala A. Emotional eating, depressive symptoms and self-reported food consumption. A population-based study. Appetite. 2010;54(3):473–9. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​appet.​2010.​01.​014.​ CrossRefPubMed
van Strien T, Winkens LHH, Broman Toft M, Pedersen S, Brouwer IA, Visser M, et al. The mediation effect of emotional eating between depression and body mass index in Denmark and Spain. Appetite. 2016;105:500–8. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​appet.​2016.​06.​025. CrossRefPubMed
•• Van Strien T, Konttinen H, Homberg JR, Engels RCME, Winkens LHH. Emotional eating as a mediator between depression and weight gain. Appetite. 2016;100:216–24. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​appet.​2016.​02.​034. This is the first prospective study showing the mediation effect of emotional eating between depression and weight gain in women. CrossRefPubMed
Alonso J, Angermeyer MC, Bernert S, Bruffaerts R, Brugha TS, Bryson H, et al. Prevalence of mental disorders in Europe: results from the European study of the epidemiology of mental disorders (ESEMeD) projec. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 2004;109(2004):21–7. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1111/​j.​1600-0047.​2004.​00327.​x. CrossRef
Berghöfer A, Pischon T, Reinhold T, Apovian CM, Sharma AM, Willich SN. Obesity prevalence from a European perspective: a systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2008;8(1):200. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1186/​1471-2458-8-200. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Aparicio E, Cannals J, Arija V, De Henauw S, Michelds N. The role of emotion regulation in childhood obesity: implications for prevention and treatment. Nutr Res Rev. 2016;29(1):17–29. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1017/​S095442241500015​3. CrossRefPubMed
Fernandes J, Ferreira-Santos F, Miller K, Torres S. Emotional processing in obesity: a systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2018;19(1):111–20. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1111/​obr.​12607. CrossRefPubMed
Van Strien T. Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Manual. Bury St Edmunds: Thames Valley Test Publishers; 2002.
Nagl M, Hilbert A, de Zwaan M, Braehler E, Kersting A. The German Version of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties, Measurement Invariance, and Population-Based Norms. PLoS One. 2016;11(9):e0162510. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1371/​journal.​pone.​0162510. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Wu S, Cai T, Luo X. Validation of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) in a sample of Chinese adolescents. Psychol Health Med. 2017;22(3):282–8. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1080/​13548506.​2016.​1173712. CrossRefPubMed
Cebolla A, Barrada JR, Van Strien T, Baños RM, Oliver L. Validation of the Dutch eating behavior questionnaire (DEBQ) in a sample of Spanish women. Appetite. 2014;73:58–64. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​appet.​2013.​10.​014. CrossRefPubMed
Van Strien T, Ouwens MA. Counterregulation in female obese emotional eaters: Schachter, Goldman, and Gordon’s (1968) test of psychosomatic theory revisited. Eat Behav. 2003;3:329–40. CrossRefPubMed
Van Strien T, Herman CP, Anschutz D, Engels RCME, de Weerth C. Moderation of distress-induced eating by emotional eating scores. Appetite. 2012;58:277–84. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​appet.​2011.​10.​005. CrossRefPubMed
Van Strien T, Herman CP, Anschutz DJ. The predictive validity of the DEBQ-external eating scale for eating in response to food commercials while watching television. Int J Eat Disord. 2012;45:257–62.
Van Strien T, Van de Laar F. Intake of energy is best predicted by overeating tendency and consumption of fat is best predicted by dietary restraint. A four-year follow up of patients with newly diagnosed type-2 diabetes. Appetite. 2008;50:544–7. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​appet.​2007.​08.​005. CrossRefPubMed
COTAN. Beoordeling Nederlandse Vragenlijst voor Eetgedrag, NVE, 2013 [Review Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ, 2013)]. Retrieved from http://​www.​cotandocumentati​e.​nl/​test_​details.​php?​id=​848.
Roosen MA, Safer DL, Adler S, Cebolla A, Van Strien T. Group dialectical therapy adapted for obese emotional eaters: a pilot study. Nutr Hosp. 2012;27(4):1141–7.
Warren JM, Smith M, Ashwell M. A structured literature review on the role of mindfulness, mindful eating and intuitive eating in changing eating behaviours: effectiveness and associated potential mechanisms. Nutr Res Rev. 2017;30(2):272–83. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1017/​S095442241700015​4. CrossRefPubMed
Creswell JD, Pacilio LE, Lindsay EK, Brown KW. Brief mindfulness meditation training alters psychological and neuroendocrine responses to social evaluative stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2014;44:1–12. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​psyneuen.​2014.​02.​007. CrossRefPubMed
Daubenmier J, Kristeller J, Hecht FM, Maninger N, Kuwata M, Jhaveri K.,. .. Epel, E. Mindfulness intervention for stress eating to reduce cortisol and abdominal fat among overweight and obese women: an exploratory randomized controlled study. J Obes 2011 651936. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1155/​2011/​651936
Chen, Z., Veling, H., Dijksterhuis, A., Holland, R.W. (2017 in press). Do impulsive individuals benifit more from food go/no go training? Testing the role of inhibition capacity in the no-go devaluation effect. Appetite, https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​appet.​2017.​04.​024
Bacon L, Aphramor L. Weight science: evaluating the evidence for a paradigm shift. Nutr J. 2011;10:1–13. http://​www.​nutritionj.​com/​content/​10/​1/​9 CrossRef