The role of dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors in management of cardiovascular disease in diabetes; focus on linagliptin
- Cardiovascular Diabetology
Authors: Annayya R. Aroor, Camila Manrique-Acevedo, Vincent G. DeMarco
Publisher: BioMed Central
Multiple population based analyses have demonstrated a high incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular (CV) mortality in subjects with T2DM that reduces life expectancy by as much as 15 years. Importantly, the CV system is particularly sensitive to the metabolic and immune derangements present in obese pre-diabetic and diabetic individuals; consequently, CV dysfunction is often the initial CV derangement to occur and promotes the progression to end organ/tissue damage in T2DM. Specifically, diabetic CVD can manifest as microvascular complications, such as nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy, as well as, macrovascular impairments, including ischemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Despite some progress in prevention and treatment of CVD, mainly via blood pressure and dyslipidemia control strategies, the impact of metabolic disease on CV outcomes is still a major challenge and persists in proportion to the epidemics of obesity and diabetes. There is abundant pre-clinical and clinical evidence implicating the DPP-4-incretin axis in CVD. In this regard, linagliptin is a unique DPP-4 inhibitor with both CV and renal safety profiles. Moreover, it exerts beneficial CV effects beyond glycemic control and beyond class effects. Linagliptin is protective for both macrovascular and microvascular complications of diabetes in preclinical models, as well as clinical models. Given the role of endothelial-immune cell interactions as one of the key events in the initiation and progression of CVD, linagliptin modulates these cell–cell interactions by affecting two important pathways involving stimulation of NO signaling and potent inhibition of a key immunoregulatory molecule.