Latent autoimmune diabetes of adulthood: case report
- Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
Authors: Cristen P. Page, Brian Fitzgerald, Emily M. Hawes
Publisher: BioMed Central
Primary care clinicians will see a higher incidence of type 2 diabetes in adult patients, and the diagnosis and management of an initial presentation of type 1 diabetes can pose challenges to clinicians who see it less frequently. Symptoms of hyperglycemia and risk of ketoacidosis may be missed. Further, endocrine autoimmune disease can run together in patients and families.
A 49-year-old Caucasian female with history of pituitary adenoma and Graves’ disease with history of thyroid ablation presented in the outpatient setting due to hand tingling of her right middle finger that was worse in the mornings and improved throughout the day. She also complained of excessive thirst, finding herself drinking more water than usual and waking up in the night to urinate. There was no dysuria or haematuria, and no other neurologic symptoms. She did report feeling hungry. She had no family history of diabetes, normal body mass index of 21.7, and reported taking her thyroid replacement medication every day. The differential diagnosis for her thirst included dehydration, psychogenic polydipsia, diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, and anxiety. The patient had normal vital signs and was well appearing; labs were ordered for her on her way home from clinic with no medications. Labs revealed a random blood glucose level of 249 mg/dL, normal renal function, a normal B12 of 996 pg/mL, and an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone level of 25.67 u[iU]/mL. On follow up with her primary care provider 5 days later, additional labs were drawn showing A1C of 11.5%, 1+ ketonuria, a negative Acetest, and a normal basic metabolic panel, except for a fasting glucose of 248 mg/dL, and Free T3 of 2.42 pg/mL, and Free T4 of 1.7 ng/dL. Islet cell antibodies and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies were both positive, consistent with type 1 diabetes. She was started on insulin and improved.
Given the patient’s age, this is a less common presentation of type 1 diabetes mellitus, as a part of polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type IIIa. It serves as a reminder that clinicians should remember that patients with one autoimmune disease (in this case, h/o Graves’ disease) are at higher risk for diabetes and other endocrine autoimmune diseases and should be screened appropriately. Clinicians should keep latent type 1 diabetes in the differential in adulthood to ensure proper and timely treatment.