Purpose of Review
Diabetes affects about a third of all hospitalized patients and up to 50% of inpatients go on to experience hyperglycemia. Despite strong evidence supporting the importance of adequate glycemic control, as well detailed guidelines from major national organizations, many patients continue to have hypo- and hyperglycemia during their hospital stay. While this may be partially related to provider and patient-specific factors, system-based barriers continue to pose a major obstacle. Therefore, there is a need to go beyond merely discussing specific insulin protocols and provide guidance for effective models of care in the acute glycemic management of hospitalized patients.
To date, there is limited data evaluating the various models of care for inpatient diabetes management in terms of efficacy or cost, and there is no summary on this topic guiding physicians and hospital administrators.
In this paper, four common models of inpatient diabetes care will be presented including those models led by the following: an endocrinologist(s), mid-level provider(s), pharmacist(s), and a virtual glucose management team. The authors will outline the intrinsic benefits as well as limitations of each model of care as well as cite supporting evidence, when available. Discussion pertaining to how a given model of care shapes and formulates a particular organization’s structured glucose management program (GMP) will be examined. Furthermore, the authors describe how the model of care chosen by an institution serves as the foundation for the creation of a GMP. Finally, the authors examine the critical factors needed for GMP success within an institution and outline the nature of hospital administrative support and accompanying reporting structure, the function of a multidisciplinary diabetes steering committee, and the role of the medical director.