Hypoglycemia and Cardiovascular Disease: Lessons from Outcome Studies
- Current Diabetes Reports
Authors: Frank Pistrosch, Markolf Hanefeld
Publisher: Springer US
Severe hypoglycemia is recognized to be one of the strongest predictors of macrovascular events, adverse clinical outcomes, and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Large clinical trials have reported an increased hazard ratio for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes and severe hypoglycemia. However, these trials also reported an increased hypoglycemia-associated mortality rate in patients allocated to standard treatment by a factor of 1.5–2 despite a significant 50 % to 70 % lower incidence of hypoglycemia compared to the intensive treatment group. Although the potential for a causal relationship has been demonstrated in mechanistic studies, the evidence from large prospective studies suggest that other pre-existing cardiovascular risk factors in addition to hypoglycemia may be the major link to the final cardiovascular event, and that a low blood glucose level can trigger these events in patients with a high cardiovascular risk.