Cardiovascular Effects of Different GLP-1 Receptor Agonists in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
- Current Diabetes Reports
Authors: Gül Bahtiyar, Jean Pujals-Kury, Alan Sacerdote
Publisher: Springer US
Purpose of Review
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) have positive effects on weight loss, blood pressure, hyperlipidemia, and glycemic control. They exhibit a broad range of effects on the cardiovascular system that are independent of changes in blood glucose. Cardiovascular outcome trials have demonstrated safety of GLP-1 RAs but results for cardiovascular efficacy were varied. The aim of the present review is the assessment of the effects of GLP-1 RAs on cardiovascular risk factors, and major cardiovascular events.
Use of GLP-1 RAs was associated with relative risk reduction in cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality with no significant differences for the incidence of severe hypoglycemia, pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, or medullary thyroid cancer when compared to placebo. Although there are differences between individual medications with respect to their effects on cardiovascular events, GLP-1 RAs offer a favorable risk-benefit profile.
The present review confirms the cardiovascular safety and efficacy vs placebo of GLP-1 RAs in patients with type 2 diabetes at moderate-to-high atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk without significant side effects. Although professional guidelines recommend metformin as the sole first-line agent, GLP-1 RAs can be used as first-line therapy in individuals with type 2 diabetes who either are intolerant to metformin or have high cardiovascular risk factors.