To compare women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) according to the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) diagnostic criteria based on the number of OGTT diagnostic criteria, which OGTT parameters are altered and the glycemic deviation from proposed diagnostic cutoffs.
Cross-sectional, multicentric study of women diagnosed with GDM between 24–28 weeks of pregnancy according to the IADPSG criteria, in Portugal, between 2012–2014. Primary outcomes: large for gestational age (LGA) and maternal glucose metabolism status after delivery. Secondary outcome: small for gestational age (SGA).
Three-thousand three-hundred fourteen patients were included; 67% had 1 OGTT altered value; 3.6% had LGA and 13% had SGA newborns; 7% had prediabetes/diabetes after delivery. Three diagnostic criteria in OGTT (OR 3.02; p < 0.001), a diagnostic value at 0 min (OR 2.09; p = 0.002) and 60 min (OR 1.70; p = 0.022) and glucose deviation at 0 min (OR 1.02; p = 0.014) were predictors of LGA. Having 2 (OR 1.94; p < 0.001) or 3 (OR 3.93; p < 0.001) diagnostic criteria in OGTT, a diagnostic value at 0 min (OR 1.76; p = 0.002), at 60 min (OR 1.57; p = 0.007) and at 120 min (OR 3.11; p < 0.001), the glucose deviation at 0 (OR 1.02; p = 0.017) and 120 min (OR 1.02; p < 0.001) were predictors of prediabetes/diabetes after delivery. Insufficient weight gain in pregnancy (OR 1.49; p < 0.001) and lower maternal BMI (OR 0.97; p = 0.024) were associated with SGA.
IADPSG diagnostic criteria include a heterogeneous group of women, for whom different management strategies should be adopted to obtain ideal pregnancy outcomes.