Skip to main content
main-content
Top

06-22-2018 | Gastroparesis | Review | Article

Diabetic Gastroparesis: Principles and Current Trends in Management

Journal: Diabetes Therapy

Authors: Sathya Krishnasamy, Thomas L. Abell

Publisher: Springer Healthcare

share
SHARE

Abstract

This article is a comprehensive review of diabetic gastroparesis, defined as delayed or disordered gastric emptying, including basic principles and current trends in management. This review includes sections on anatomy and physiology, diagnosis and differential diagnosis as well as management and current guidelines for treatment of diabetic gastroparesis. Diabetic gastroparesis (DGp) is a component of autonomic neuropathy resulting from long-standing poorly controlled type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The diagnostic workup of DGp first excludes obstruction and other causes including medications that may mimic delayed/disordered gastric emptying. Targeting nutrition, hydration, symptomatic relief and glycemic control are mainstays of treatment for DGp. Additionally, optimal treatment of DGp includes good glycemic management, often involving customizing insulin delivery using basal-bolus insulin and technology, including sensor-augmented pumps and continuous glucose monitoring systems. Prokinetic medications may be helpful in DGp symptoms, although only limited number of medications is currently available in the USA. Selected medication-refractory patients with DGp may benefit from gastric neuromodulation, and some from surgical interventions including pyloric therapies that can also be done endoscopically. As is true of any of the diabetic complications, prevention of DGp by early and optimal glycemic control is more cost-effective.
Funding: Hansa Medcell, India.
Literature
1.
Kassander P. Asymptomatic gastric retention in diabetics (gastroparesis diabeticorum). Ann Intern Med. 1958;48:797–812. PubMedCrossRef
2.
Horowitz M, Harding PE, Maddox AF, et al. Gastric and oesophageal emptying in patients with type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia. 1989;32:151–9. PubMedCrossRef
3.
Bekele G, Kabadi UM. Gastro intestinal manifestations of diabetes mellitus. Int J Diabetes Dev Countries. 1996;16:54–8.
4.
Camilleri M, Parkman HP, Shafi MA, et al. Clinical guideline: management of gastroparesis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013;108:18–37 (quiz 38). PubMedCrossRef
5.
Ajumobi AB, Griffin RA. Diabetic gastroparesis: evaluation and management. Hosp Physician. 2008;44:27–35.
6.
International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Diabetes atlas. 6th ed. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation, 2018.
7.
Dall TM, Yang W, Halder P, et al. The economic burden of elevated blood glucose levels in 2012: diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, gestational diabetes mellitus, and prediabetes. Diabetes Care. 2014;37:3172–9. PubMedCrossRef
8.
Diabetes UK. Diabetes prevalence 2016 (November 2016). Diabetes UK. 2016. https://​www.​diabetes.​org.​uk/​professionals/​position-statements-reports/​statistics/​diabetes-prevalence-2016. Accessed 7 June 2018.
10.
[No authors listed]. The effect of intensive diabetes therapy on measures of autonomic nervous system function in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT). Diabetologia 1998;41:416–23.
11.
Albers JW, Herman WH, Pop-Busui R, et al. Effect of prior intensive insulin treatment during the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) on peripheral neuropathy in type 1 diabetes during the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) Study. Diabetes Care. 2010;33:1090–6. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
12.
Callaghan BC, Little AA, Feldman EL, et al. Enhanced glucose control for preventing and treating diabetic neuropathy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;cd007543.
13.
Pop-Busui R, Low PA, Waberski BH, et al. Effects of prior intensive insulin therapy on cardiac autonomic nervous system function in type 1 diabetes mellitus: the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications study (DCCT/EDIC). Circulation. 2009;119:2886–93. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
14.
Vinik AI, Erbas T. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Handb Clin Neurol. 2013;117:279–94. PubMedCrossRef
15.
Gaede P, Vedel P, Larsen N, et al. Multifactorial intervention and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:383–93. PubMedCrossRef
16.
American Diabetes Association. Standards of Medical Care in diabetes—2016: summary of revisions. Diabetes Care. 2016;39[Suppl 1]:S4–5.
17.
American Diabetes Association. Improving care and promoting health in populations: standards of medical care in diabetes—2018. Diabetes Care 2018;41[Suppl 1]:S7–S12.
18.
Vinik AI, Maser RE, Mitchell BD, et al. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Diabetes Care. 2003;26:1553–79. PubMedCrossRef
19.
American Diabetes Association. Comprehensive medical evaluation and assessment of comorbidities. Diabetes Care. 2018;41:S25–32. CrossRef
20.
Sellin JH, Chang EB. Therapy Insight: gastrointestinal complications of diabetes–pathophysiology and management. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;5:162–71. PubMedCrossRef
21.
Koch KL. Diabetic gastropathy: gastric neuromuscular dysfunction in diabetes mellitus: a review of symptoms, pathophysiology, and treatment. Dig Dis Sci. 1999;44:1061–75. PubMedCrossRef
22.
Jones KL, Horowitz M, Wishart MJ, et al. Relationships between gastric emptying, intragastric meal distribution and blood glucose concentrations in diabetes mellitus. J Nucl Med. 1995;36:2220–8. PubMed
23.
Parkman HP, Camilleri M, Farrugia G, et al. Gastroparesis and functional dyspepsia: excerpts from the AGA/ANMS meeting. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010;22:113–33. PubMedCrossRef
24.
Stanghellini V, Tosetti C, Paternico A, et al. Risk indicators of delayed gastric emptying of solids in patients with functional dyspepsia. Gastroenterology. 1996;110:1036–42. PubMedCrossRef
25.
Soykan I, Sivri B, Sarosiek I, et al. Demography, clinical characteristics, psychological and abuse profiles, treatment, and long-term follow-up of patients with gastroparesis. Dig Dis Sci. 1998;43:2398–404. PubMedCrossRef
26.
Feldman M, Schiller LR. Disorders of gastrointestinal motility associated with diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med. 1983;98:378–84. PubMedCrossRef
27.
Bytzer P, Talley NJ, Leemon M, et al. Prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with diabetes mellitus: a population-based survey of 15,000 adults. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161:1989–96. PubMedCrossRef
28.
Bharucha AE, Batey-Schaefer B, Cleary PA, et al. Delayed gastric emptying is associated with early and long-term hyperglycemia in Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Gastroenterology. 2015;149:330–9. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
29.
Hasler WL. Gastroparesis–current concepts and considerations. Medscape J Med. 2008;10:16. PubMedPubMedCentral
30.
Jung HK, Choung RS, Locke GR 3rd, et al. The incidence, prevalence, and outcomes of patients with gastroparesis in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1996 to 2006. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:1225–33. PubMedCrossRef
31.
Anudeep V, Vinod KV, Pandit N, et al. Prevalence and predictors of delayed gastric emptying among Indian patients with long-standing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2016;35:385–92. PubMedCrossRef
32.
Koch KL, Hasler WL, Yates KP, et al. Baseline features and differences in 48 week clinical outcomes in patients with gastroparesis and type 1 vs type 2 diabetes. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2016;28:1001–15. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
33.
Singla R, Homko C, Schey R, et al. Diabetes-related autoantibodies in diabetic gastroparesis. Dig Dis Sci. 2015;60:1733–7. PubMedCrossRef
34.
Ko GT, Chan WB, Chan JC, et al. Gastrointestinal symptoms in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med. 1999;16:670–4. PubMedCrossRef
35.
Janatuinen E, Pikkarainen P, Laakso M, et al. Gastrointestinal symptoms in middle-aged diabetic patients. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1993;28:427–32. PubMedCrossRef
36.
Bell RA, Jones-Vessey K, Summerson JH. Hospitalizations and outcomes for diabetic gastroparesis in North Carolina. South Med J. 2002;95:1297–9. PubMedCrossRef
37.
Jones KL, Russo A, Stevens JE, et al. Predictors of delayed gastric emptying in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2001;24:1264–9. PubMedCrossRef
38.
Camilleri M, Bharucha AE, Farrugia G. Epidemiology, mechanisms, and management of diabetic gastroparesis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;9:5–12 (quiz e7). PubMedCrossRef
39.
Gangula PR, Sekhar KR, Mukhopadhyay S. Gender bias in gastroparesis: is nitric oxide the answer? Dig Dis Sci. 2011;56:2520–7. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
40.
Wu SP, DeMayo FJ. Progesterone receptor signaling in uterine myometrial physiology and preterm birth. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2017;125:171–90. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
41.
Brennan IM, Feltrin KL, Nair NS, et al. Effects of the phases of the menstrual cycle on gastric emptying, glycemia, plasma GLP-1 and insulin, and energy intake in healthy lean women. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;297:G602–10. PubMedCrossRef
42.
Verrengia M, Sachdeva P, Gaughan J, et al. Variation of symptoms during the menstrual cycle in female patients with gastroparesis. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2011;23:625-e254. PubMedCrossRef
43.
Hutson WR, Roehrkasse RL, Wald A. Influence of gender and menopause on gastric emptying and motility. Gastroenterology. 1989;96:11–7. PubMedCrossRef
44.
Pasricha PJ, Colvin R, Yates K, et al. Characteristics of patients with chronic unexplained nausea and vomiting and normal gastric emptying. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;9:567–76 (e1-4). PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
45.
Darwiche G, Almer LO, Bjorgell O, et al. Delayed gastric emptying rate in Type 1 diabetics with cardiac autonomic neuropathy. J Diabetes Complic. 2001;15:128–34. CrossRef
46.
Lydon A, Murray C, Cooke T, et al. Evaluation of standard haemodynamic tests of autonomic function and HbA1c as predictors of delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2000;17:99–104. PubMed
47.
Perano SJ, Rayner CK, Kritas S, et al. Gastric emptying is more rapid in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes and impacts on postprandial glycemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100:2248–53. PubMedCrossRef
48.
Wang YR, Fisher RS, Parkman HP. Gastroparesis-related hospitalizations in the United States: trends, characteristics, and outcomes, 1995–2004. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103:313–22. PubMedCrossRef
49.
Hyett B, Martinez FJ, Gill BM, et al. Delayed radionucleotide gastric emptying studies predict morbidity in diabetics with symptoms of gastroparesis. Gastroenterology. 2009;137:445–52. PubMedCrossRef
50.
Chang J, Rayner CK, Jones KL, et al. Prognosis of diabetic gastroparesis—a 25-year evaluation. Diabet Med. 2013;30:e185–8. PubMedCrossRef
51.
Hellstrom PM, Gryback P, Jacobsson H. The physiology of gastric emptying. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2006;20:397–407. PubMedCrossRef
52.
Ehrlein HJ, Scheman M. Gastrointestinal motility [online tutorial]: Munich: Technical University of Munich, 2006.
53.
Camilleri M, Bharucha AE, Farrugia G. Epidemiology, mechanisms, and management of diabetic gastroparesis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;9:5–12 (quiz e7). PubMedCrossRef
54.
Ordog T. Interstitial cells of Cajal in diabetic gastroenteropathy. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2008;20:8–18. PubMedCrossRef
55.
Phillips LK, Deane AM, Jones KL, et al. Gastric emptying and glycaemia in health and diabetes mellitus. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2015;11:112–28. PubMedCrossRef
56.
Marathe CS, Horowitz M, Trahair LG, et al. Relationships of early and late glycemic responses with gastric emptying during an oral glucose tolerance test. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100:3565–71. PubMedCrossRef
57.
Marathe CS, Rayner CK, Jones KL, et al. Novel insights into the effects of diabetes on gastric motility. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;10:581–93. PubMedCrossRef
58.
Choi KM, Gibbons SJ, Nguyen TV, et al. Heme oxygenase-1 protects interstitial cells of Cajal from oxidative stress and reverses diabetic gastroparesis. Gastroenterology. 2008;135:2055–64 (2064.e1-2). PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
59.
Horvath VJ, Izbeki F, Lengyel C, et al. Diabetic gastroparesis: functional/morphologic background, diagnosis, and treatment options. Curr Diab Rep. 2014;14:527. PubMedCrossRef
60.
Horvath VJ, Vittal H, Ordog T. Reduced insulin and IGF-I signaling, not hyperglycemia, underlies the diabetes-associated depletion of interstitial cells of Cajal in the murine stomach. Diabetes. 2005;54:1528–33. PubMedCrossRef
61.
Neshatian L, Gibbons SJ, Farrugia G. Macrophages in diabetic gastroparesis—the missing link? Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2015;27:7–18. PubMedCrossRef
62.
Faussone-Pellegrini MS, Grover M, Pasricha PJ, et al. Ultrastructural differences between diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis. J Cell Mol Med. 2012;16:1573–81. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
64.
Vella A, Bock G, Giesler PD, et al. Effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition on gastrointestinal function, meal appearance, and glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2007;56:1475–80. PubMedCrossRef
65.
De Block CE, De Leeuw IH, Pelckmans PA, et al. Delayed gastric emptying and gastric autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2002;25:912–7. PubMedCrossRef
66.
Goo RH, Moore JG, Greenberg E, et al. Circadian variation in gastric emptying of meals in humans. Gastroenterology. 1987;93:515–8. PubMedCrossRef
67.
Koch KL, Calles-Escandon J. Diabetic gastroparesis. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2015;44:39–57. PubMedCrossRef
68.
Koch CA, Uwaifo GI. Are gastrointestinal symptoms related to diabetes mellitus and glycemic control? Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;20:822–5. PubMedCrossRef
69.
Samsom M, Vermeijden JR, Smout AJ, et al. Prevalence of delayed gastric emptying in diabetic patients and relationship to dyspeptic symptoms: a prospective study in unselected diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 2003;26:3116–22. PubMedCrossRef
70.
Talley NJ, Verlinden M, Jones M. Can symptoms discriminate among those with delayed or normal gastric emptying in dysmotility-like dyspepsia? Am J Gastroenterol. 2001;96:1422–8. PubMedCrossRef
71.
Waseem S, Moshiree B, Draganov PV. Gastroparesis: current diagnostic challenges and management considerations. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15:25–37. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
72.
Revicki DA, Camilleri M, Kuo B, et al. Evaluating symptom outcomes in gastroparesis clinical trials: validity and responsiveness of the Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index-Daily Diary (GCSI-DD). Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2012;24:456–63 (e215–6).
73.
Cutts T, Holmes S, Kedar A, et al. Twenty-five years of advocacy for patients with gastroparesis: support group therapy and patient reported outcome tool development. BMC Gastroenterol. 2016;16:107. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
74.
Abell TL, Bernstein RK, Cutts T, et al. Treatment of gastroparesis: a multidisciplinary clinical review. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2006;18:263–83. PubMedCrossRef
75.
Butalia S, Johnson JA, Ghali WA, et al. Clinical and socio-demographic factors associated with diabetic ketoacidosis hospitalization in adults with Type 1 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2013;30:567–73. PubMedCrossRef
76.
Legaspi R, Narciso P. Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis due to gastroparesis, a local experience. J Ark Med Soc. 2015;112:62–3. PubMed
77.
Abell TL, Camilleri M, Donohoe K, et al. Consensus recommendations for gastric emptying scintigraphy: a joint report of the American Neurogastroenterology and Motility Society and the Society of Nuclear Medicine. J Nucl Med Technol. 2008;36:44–54. PubMedCrossRef
78.
Shin AS, Camilleri M. Diagnostic assessment of diabetic gastroparesis. Diabetes. 2013;62:2667–73. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
79.
Tang DM, Friedenberg FK. Gastroparesis: approach, diagnostic evaluation, and management. Dis Mon. 2011;57:74–101. PubMedCrossRef
80.
Parkman HP, Harris AD, Miller MA, et al. Influence of age, gender, and menstrual cycle on the normal electrogastrogram. Am J Gastroenterol. 1996;91:127–33. PubMed
81.
Meneghini LF, Hogan AR, Selvaggi G. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome in type 1 diabetes masquerading as gastroparesis. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:1983–4. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
82.
Chial HJ, McAlpine DE, Camilleri M. Anorexia nervosa: manifestations and management for the gastroenterologist. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97:255–69. PubMedCrossRef
83.
Geliebter A, Melton PM, McCray RS, et al. Gastric capacity, gastric emptying, and test-meal intake in normal and bulimic women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;56:656–61. PubMedCrossRef
84.
Plummer MP, Jones KL, Annink CE, et al. Glucagon-like peptide 1 attenuates the acceleration of gastric emptying induced by hypoglycemia in healthy subjects. Diabetes Care. 2014;37:1509–15. PubMedCrossRef
85.
Kedar A, Nikitina Y, Henry OR, et al. Gastric dysmotility and low serum vitamin D levels in patients with gastroparesis. Horm Metab Res. 2013;45:47–53. PubMed
86.
Parkman HP, Yates KP, Hasler WL, et al. Dietary intake and nutritional deficiencies in patients with diabetic or idiopathic gastroparesis. Gastroenterology. 2011;141:486–98 (498.e1-7). PubMedCrossRef
87.
Camilleri M. Clinical practice. Diabetic gastroparesis. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:820–9. PubMedCrossRef
88.
Olausson EA, Storsrud S, Grundin H, et al. A small particle size diet reduces upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with diabetic gastroparesis: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 2014;109:375–85. PubMedCrossRef
89.
Sadiya A. Nutritional therapy for the management of diabetic gastroparesis: clinical review. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2012;5:329–35. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
90.
Lipp RW, Schnedl WJ, Hammer HF, et al. Effects of postprandial walking on delayed gastric emptying and intragastric meal distribution in longstanding diabetics. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000;95:419–24. PubMedCrossRef
91.
Lacy BE, Crowell MD, Mathis C, et al. Gastroparesis: quality of life and health care utilization. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2018; 52(1):20–4.
92.
Jones KL, Tonkin A, Horowitz M, et al. Rate of gastric emptying is a determinant of postprandial hypotension in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Clin Sci (Lond). 1998;94:65–70. CrossRef
93.
Jones KL, MacIntosh C, Su YC, et al. Guar gum reduces postprandial hypotension in older people. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001;49:162–7. PubMedCrossRef
94.
Holst JJ, Gribble F, Horowitz M, et al. Roles of the gut in glucose homeostasis. Diabetes Care. 2016;39:884–92. PubMedCrossRef
95.
Chaikomin R, Rayner CK, Jones KL, et al. Upper gastrointestinal function and glycemic control in diabetes mellitus. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:5611–21. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
96.
Garber AJ, Abrahamson MJ, Barzilay JI, et al. Consensus statement by the american association of clinical endocrinologists and american college of endocrinology on the comprehensive type 2 diabetes management algorithm—2018 executive summary. Endocr Pract. 2018;24:91–120. PubMedCrossRef
97.
American Diabetes Association. Glycemic targets: standards of medical care in diabetes—2018. Diabetes Care 2018;41[Suppl 1]:S55–S64.
98.
Rosenstock J, Ferrannini E. Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis: a predictable, detectable, and preventable safety concern with SGLT2 inhibitors. Diabetes Care. 2015;38:1638–42. PubMedCrossRef
99.
Alvarez-Villalobos NA, Trevino-Alvarez AM, Gonzalez-Gonzalez JG. Liraglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2016;375:1797–8. PubMedCrossRef
100.
Ramzan Z, Duffy F, Gomez J, et al. Continuous glucose monitoring in gastroparesis. Dig Dis Sci. 2011;56:2646–55. PubMedCrossRef
101.
Giugliano D, Maiorino MI, Bellastella G, et al. Comment on American Diabetes Association. Approaches to glycemic treatment. Sec. 7. In: Standards of medical care in diabetes–2016. Diabetes Care 2016;39(Suppl. 1):S52-S59. Diabetes Care 2016;39:e86-7.
102.
Calles-Escandon J, Koch KL, Hasler WL, et al. Glucose sensor-augmented continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in patients with diabetic gastroparesis: an open-label pilot prospective study. PLoS ONE. 2018;13:e0194759. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
103.
Bergenstal RM, Garg S, Weinzimer SA, et al. Safety of a hybrid closed-loop insulin delivery system in patients with Type 1 diabetes. JAMA. 2016;316:1407–8. PubMedCrossRef
104.
Sharma D, Morrison G, Joseph F, et al. The role of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy in patients with diabetic gastroparesis. Diabetologia. 2011;54:2768–70. PubMedCrossRef
105.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA expands indication for continuous glucose monitoring system, first to replace fingerstick testing for diabetes treatment decisions. 2016. https://​www.​fda.​gov/​NewsEvents/​Newsroom/​PressAnnouncemen​ts/​ucm534056.​htm.
106.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA approves first continuous glucose monitoring system for adults not requiring blood sample calibration. U.S. Food and Drug Administration; 2017.
107.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA authorizes first fully interoperable continuous glucose monitoring system, streamlines review pathway for similar devices. 2018. https://​www.​fda.​gov/​NewsEvents/​Newsroom/​PressAnnouncemen​ts/​ucm602870.​htm.
108.
Thazhath SS, Jones KL, Horowitz M, et al. Diabetic gastroparesis: recent insights into pathophysiology and implications for management. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;7:127–39. PubMedCrossRef
109.
Navas CM, Patel NK, Lacy BE. Gastroparesis: medical and therapeutic advances. Dig Dis Sci. 2017;62:2231–40. PubMedCrossRef
110.
Braverman D, Bogoch A. Metoclopramide for gastroparesis diabeticorum. Diabetes Care. 1978;1:356–9. PubMedCrossRef
111.
Ehrenpreis ED, Deepak P, Sifuentes H, et al. The metoclopramide black box warning for tardive dyskinesia: effect on clinical practice, adverse event reporting, and prescription drug lawsuits. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013;108:866–72. PubMedCrossRef
112.
Parkman HP, Carlson MR, Gonyer D. Metoclopramide nasal spray is effective in symptoms of gastroparesis in diabetics compared to conventional oral tablet. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2014;26:521–8. PubMedCrossRef
113.
Madani S, Tolia V. Gynecomastia with metoclopramide use in pediatric patients. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1997;24:79–81. PubMedCrossRef
114.
Srikantha M, Butterworth R. Pharmacological hyperprolactinaemia. BMJ Case Rep;2009. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1136/​bcr.​01.​2009.​1432.
115.
Naruse M, Naruse K, Yoshimoto T, et al. Dopaminergic regulation of aldosterone secretion: its pathophysiologic significance in subsets of primary aldosteronism. Hypertens Res. 1995;18[Suppl 1]:S59–64. PubMedCrossRef
116.
Horowitz M, Harding PE, Chatterton BE, et al. Acute and chronic effects of domperidone on gastric emptying in diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Dig Dis Sci. 1985;30:1–9. PubMedCrossRef
117.
Tonini M, Cipollina L, Poluzzi E, et al. Review article: clinical implications of enteric and central D2 receptor blockade by antidopaminergic gastrointestinal prokinetics. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2004;19:379–90. PubMedCrossRef
118.
Erbas T, Varoglu E, Erbas B, et al. Comparison of metoclopramide and erythromycin in the treatment of diabetic gastroparesis. Diabetes Care. 1993;16:1511–4. PubMedCrossRef
119.
Parthasarathy G, Kudva YC, Low PA, et al. Relationship between gastric emptying and diurnal glycemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus: a randomized trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017; 102(2):398–406.
120.
Evans AJ, Krentz AJ. Should cisapride be avoided in patients with diabetic gastroparesis? J Diabetes Complic. 1999;13:314–5. CrossRef
121.
Parkman HP, Van Natta ML, Abell TL, et al. Effect of nortriptyline on symptoms of idiopathic gastroparesis: the NORIG randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2013;310:2640–9. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
122.
Hasler WL. Emerging drugs for the treatment of gastroparesis. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2014;19:261–79. PubMedCrossRef
123.
Shin A, Camilleri M, Busciglio I, et al. The ghrelin agonist RM-131 accelerates gastric emptying of solids and reduces symptoms in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;11(1453–1459):e4.
124.
Lembo A, Camilleri M, McCallum R, et al. Relamorelin reduces vomiting frequency and severity and accelerates gastric emptying in adults with diabetic gastroparesis. Gastroenterology. 2016;151(87–96):e6.
125.
Murray CD, Martin NM, Patterson M, et al. Ghrelin enhances gastric emptying in diabetic gastroparesis: a double blind, placebo controlled, crossover study. Gut. 2005;54:1693–8. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
126.
Ejskjaer N, Vestergaard ET, Hellstrom PM, et al. Ghrelin receptor agonist (TZP-101) accelerates gastric emptying in adults with diabetes and symptomatic gastroparesis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2009;29:1179–87. PubMedCrossRef
127.
Camilleri M, McCallum RW, Tack J, et al. Efficacy and safety of relamorelin in diabetics with symptoms of gastroparesis: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Gastroenterology. 2017;153(1240–1250):e2.
128.
Lacy BE, Crowell MD, Schettler-Duncan A, et al. The treatment of diabetic gastroparesis with botulinum toxin injection of the pylorus. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:2341–7. PubMedCrossRef
129.
Jacques J, Legros R, Monteil J, et al. Gastric peroral endoscopic pyloromyotomy as a salvage therapy for refractory gastroparesis: a case series of different subtypes. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2017;29.
130.
Moraveji S, Bashashati M, Elhanafi S, et al. Depleted interstitial cells of Cajal and fibrosis in the pylorus: novel features of gastroparesis. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2016;28:1048–54. PubMedCrossRef
131.
Hibbard ML, Dunst CM, Swanstrom LL. Laparoscopic and endoscopic pyloroplasty for gastroparesis results in sustained symptom improvement. J Gastrointest Surg. 2011;15:1513–9. PubMedCrossRef
132.
Khashab MA, Stein E, Clarke JO, et al. Gastric peroral endoscopic myotomy for refractory gastroparesis: first human endoscopic pyloromyotomy (with video). Gastrointest Endosc. 2013;78:764–8. PubMedCrossRef
133.
Abell T, McCallum R, Hocking M, et al. Gastric electrical stimulation for medically refractory gastroparesis. Gastroenterology. 2003;125:421–8. PubMedCrossRef
134.
Lin Z, Forster J, Sarosiek I, et al. Treatment of diabetic gastroparesis by high-frequency gastric electrical stimulation. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:1071–6. PubMedCrossRef
135.
Ringel Y. How is drug-refractory gastroparesis treated?: Medscape;2012. https://​www.​medscape.​com/​viewarticle/​756815. Accessed 7 June 2018.
136.
Abell TL, Johnson WD, Kedar A, et al. A double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of temporary endoscopic mucosal gastric electrical stimulation for gastroparesis. Gastrointest Endosc. 2011;74(496–503):e3.
137.
Wang L. Clinical observation on acupuncture treatment in 35 cases of diabetic gastroparesis. J Tradit Chin Med. 2004;24:163–5. PubMed
138.
Gonlachanvit S, Chen YH, Hasler WL, et al. Ginger reduces hyperglycemia-evoked gastric dysrhythmias in healthy humans: possible role of endogenous prostaglandins. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;307:1098–103. PubMedCrossRef
139.
Choi KM, Gibbons SJ, Sha L, et al. Interleukin 10 restores gastric emptying, electrical activity, and interstitial cells of cajal networks in diabetic mice. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;2:454–67. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
140.
Neiberg RH, Rejeski JJ, Applegate WB, et al. Self-reported gastrointestinal symptoms in Type 2 diabetes improve with an intensive lifestyle intervention: results from the action for health in diabetes (Look AHEAD) Clinical Trial. Clin Diabetes. 2015;33:181–8. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
141.
Crandall JP, Knowler WC, Kahn SE, et al. The prevention of type 2 diabetes. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2008;4:382–93. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
142.
Knowler WC, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, et al. 10-Year follow-up of diabetes incidence and weight loss in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study. Lancet. 2009;374:1677–86. PubMedCrossRef
143.
American Diabetes Association. Prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes: standards of medical care in diabetes—2018. Diabetes Care 2018;41[Suppl 1]:S51–S54.
144.
Diabetes Control Complications Trial Research Group. Effect of intensive diabetes treatment on nerve conduction in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. Ann Neurol. 1995;38:869–80. CrossRef

New additions to the Adis Journal Club

A selection of topical peer-reviewed articles from the Adis journals, curated by the editors.

The challenge of type 2 diabetes in children

Who is at the highest risk for developing type 2 diabetes in their youth? 

Supporting people with diabetes during Ramadan

Evidence overview and practical advice for fasting with type 1 or type 2 diabetes