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07-16-2020 | Flash glucose monitoring | Article

Three European Retrospective Real-World Chart Review Studies to Determine the Effectiveness of Flash Glucose Monitoring on HbA1c in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes Therapy

Authors: Jens Kröger, Peter Fasching, Hélène Hanaire

Publisher: Springer Healthcare



The impact of flash glucose monitoring technology on HbA1c in type 2 diabetes managed by basal bolus insulin is uncertain. Three parallel European retrospective non-interventional chart review studies collected data reported in medical records. Each country’s study aim was to determine the effectiveness of the device on HbA1c when used by their population for 3–6 months as their standard of care for management of glycaemia in a real-world setting.


Medical records were eligible for adult patients with type 2 diabetes, on a basal bolus insulin regimen for 1 year or more, device use for 3 months or more before the start of the study, an HbA1c concentration up to 3 months prior to starting device use (patients were using blood glucose monitoring for self-management) between 64 and 108 mmol/mol (8.0–12.0%) plus an HbA1c determination 3–6 months after commencing flash glucose monitoring use.


Records were analysed from 18 medical centres in Austria (n = 92), France (n = 88) and Germany (n = 183). Baseline HbA1c results, recorded up to 90 days before the start of device use, were comparable across the three countries and were reduced significantly by 9.6 ± 8.8 mmol/mol mean ± SD (Austria [0.9 ± 0.8%], p < 0.0001), 8.9 ± 12.5 mmol/mol (France [0.8% ± 1.1], p < 0.0001) and 10.1 ± 12.2 mmol/mol (Germany [0.9% ± 1.1], p < 0.0001). No significant differences were detected between age group, sex, BMI or duration of insulin use.


Three European real-world, chart review studies in people with type 2 diabetes managed using basal bolus insulin therapy each concluded that HbA1c was significantly reduced after changing to use of flash glucose monitoring for 3–6 months in a real-world setting.

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