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11-28-2018 | Diabetic cardiomyopathy | Article

Cardiovascular risk reduction over time in patients with diabetes or pre-diabetes undergoing bariatric surgery: data from a single-center retrospective observational study

Journal: BMC Endocrine Disorders

Authors: Matilde Rubio-Almanza, Rosa Cámara-Gómez, David Hervás-Marín, José Luis Ponce-Marco, Juan Francisco Merino-Torres

Publisher: BioMed Central

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Abstract

Background

Bariatric surgery is effective in remission of obesity comorbidities. This study was aimed at comparing CVD risk between morbidly obese patients with type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes before and after bariatric surgery as well as assessing comorbidities.

Methods

This is a retrospective observational study with 105 patients with type 2 diabetes (DMbaseline) and prediabetes (preDMbaseline) who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Data were collected preoperative and then at 3,6,12,18,24,36,48, and 60 months after surgery. Anthropometric, cardiovascular and glycemic parameters were assessed. CVD risk was calculated using the Framingham Risk Score.

Results

Prior to surgery, 48 patients had type 2 diabetes, while 57 had pre-diabetes. Mean age was 48 (9.2) and mean BMI was 52 (7.4). 26.1% of patients had a high CVD risk. CVD risk decreased in patients with type 2 diabetes and prediabetes at month 12 after surgery compared to the baseline risk (p < 0.001). BMI, body fat percentage, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, c-peptide, HOMA-IR, LDL-c, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure decreased during the first year after surgery. From the 12th month until the 60th, they showed a flat trend, or a very mild increase in some cases. 3.2% of patients maintained high CVD risk at 60 months. Type 2 diabetes remission was 92%. No patient of the preDMbaseline group developed type 2 diabetes.

Conclusion

Bariatric surgery reduces CVD risk in type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes. Given that patients with type 2 diabetes benefit the most, more studies are necessary to consider pre-diabetes as a criterion for metabolic surgery in patients with BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2.
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