Skip to main content
Top

02-02-2018 | Depression | Review | Article

Measurement properties of depression questionnaires in patients with diabetes: a systematic review

Journal: Quality of Life Research

Authors: Susan E. M. van Dijk, Marcel C. Adriaanse, Lennart van der Zwaan, Judith E. Bosmans, Harm W. J. van Marwijk, Maurits W. van Tulder, Caroline B. Terwee

Publisher: Springer International Publishing

Abstract

Purpose

To conduct a systematic review on measurement properties of questionnaires measuring depressive symptoms in adult patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

Methods

A systematic review of the literature in MEDLINE, EMbase and PsycINFO was performed. Full text, original articles, published in any language up to October 2016 were included. Eligibility for inclusion was independently assessed by three reviewers who worked in pairs. Methodological quality of the studies was evaluated by two independent reviewers using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. Quality of the questionnaires was rated per measurement property, based on the number and quality of the included studies and the reported results.

Results

Of 6286 unique hits, 21 studies met our criteria evaluating nine different questionnaires in multiple settings and languages. The methodological quality of the included studies was variable for the different measurement properties: 9/15 studies scored ‘good’ or ‘excellent’ on internal consistency, 2/5 on reliability, 0/1 on content validity, 10/10 on structural validity, 8/11 on hypothesis testing, 1/5 on cross-cultural validity, and 4/9 on criterion validity. For the CES-D, there was strong evidence for good internal consistency, structural validity, and construct validity; moderate evidence for good criterion validity; and limited evidence for good cross-cultural validity. The PHQ-9 and WHO-5 also performed well on several measurement properties. However, the evidence for structural validity of the PHQ-9 was inconclusive. The WHO-5 was less extensively researched and originally not developed to measure depression.

Conclusion

Currently, the CES-D is best supported for measuring depressive symptoms in diabetes patients.
Literature
1.
Guariguata, L., Whiting, D., Hambleton, I., Beagley, J., Linnenkamp, U., & Shaw, J. (2014). Global estimates of diabetes prevalence for 2013 and projections for 2035. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 103(2), 137–149. CrossRefPubMed
2.
Anderson, R. J., Freedland, K. E., Clouse, R. E., & Lustman, P. J. (2001). The prevalence of comorbid depression in adults with diabetes: A meta-analysis. Diabetes Care, 24(6), 1069–1078. CrossRefPubMed
3.
Roy, T., & Lloyd, C. E. (2012). Epidemiology of depression and diabetes: A systematic review. Journal of Affective Disorders, 142, S8-S21. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​S0165-0327(12)70004-6. CrossRef
4.
Bot, M., Pouwer, F., Ormel, J., Slaets, J. P., & De Jonge, P. (2010). Predictors of incident major depression in diabetic outpatients with subthreshold depression. Diabetic Medicine, 27(11), 1295–1301. CrossRefPubMed
5.
Gonzalez, J. S., Peyrot, M., McCarl, L. A., Collins, E. M., Serpa, L., Mimiaga, M. J., et al. (2008). Depression and diabetes treatment nonadherence: A meta-analysis. Diabetes Care, 31(12), 2398–2403. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
6.
Lustman, P. J., & Clouse, R. E. (2005). Depression in diabetic patients. Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications, 19(2), 113–122. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​jdiacomp.​2004.​01.​002. PubMedCrossRef
7.
Lin, E. H., Rutter, C. M., Katon, W., Heckbert, S. R., Ciechanowski, P., Oliver, M. M., et al. (2010). Depression and advanced complications of diabetes: A prospective cohort study. Diabetes Care, 33(2), 264–269. https://​doi.​org/​10.​2337/​dc09-1068. CrossRefPubMed
8.
Ali, S., Stone, M., Skinner, T. C., Robertson, N., Davies, M., & Khunti, K. (2010). The association between depression and health-related quality of life in people with type 2 diabetes: A systematic literature review. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, 26(2), 75–89. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1002/​dmrr.​1065. CrossRefPubMed
9.
Bosmans, J. E., & Adriaanse, M. C. (2012). Outpatient costs in pharmaceutically treated diabetes patients with and without a diagnosis of depression in a Dutch primary care setting. BMC Health Services Research, 12, 46. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1186/​1472-6963-12-46. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
10.
Association., A. D. (2013). Standards of medical care in diabetes—2013. Diabetes Care, 36, S11. CrossRef
11.
Katon, W., Unützer, J., Wells, K., & Jones, L. (2010). Collaborative depression care: History, evolution and ways to enhance dissemination and sustainability. General Hospital Psychiatry, 32(5), 456–464. CrossRefPubMed
12.
Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale a Self-Report Depression Scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1(3), 385–401. CrossRef
13.
Zigmond, A. S., & Snaith, R. P. (1983). The hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 67(6), 361–370. CrossRefPubMed
14.
Kroenke, K., & Spitzer, R. L. (2002). The PHQ-9: A new depression diagnostic and severity measure. Psychiatric Annals, 32(9), 1–7. CrossRef
15.
Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory-II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
16.
Roy, T., Lloyd, C. E., Pouwer, F., Holt, R. I., & Sartorius, N. (2012). Screening tools used for measuring depression among people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: A systematic review. Diabetic Medicine, 29(2), 164–175. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1111/​j.​1464-5491.​2011.​03401.​x. CrossRefPubMed
17.
Mokkink, L. B., Terwee, C. B., Patrick, D. L., Alonso, J., Stratford, P. W., Knol, D. L., et al. (2010). The COSMIN study reached international consensus on taxonomy, terminology, and definitions of measurement properties for health-related patient-reported outcomes. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 63(7), 737–745. CrossRefPubMed
18.
Mokkink, L. B., Terwee, C. B., Patrick, D. L., Alonso, J., Stratford, P. W., Knol, D. L., et al. (2010). The COSMIN checklist for assessing the methodological quality of studies on measurement properties of health status measurement instruments: An international Delphi study. Qual Life Research, 19(4), 539–549. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s11136-010-9606-8. CrossRef
19.
Terwee, C. B., Mokkink, L. B., Knol, D. L., Ostelo, R. W., Bouter, L. M., & de Vet, H. C. (2012). Rating the methodological quality in systematic reviews of studies on measurement properties: A scoring system for the COSMIN checklist. Qual Life Research. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s11136-011-9960-1. CrossRef
20.
Terwee, C. B., Bot, S. D., de Boer, M. R., van der Windt, D. A., Knol, D. L., Dekker, J., et al. (2007). Quality criteria were proposed for measurement properties of health status questionnaires. J Clinical Epidemiology, 60(1), 34–42. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​jclinepi.​2006.​03.​012. CrossRef
21.
Schellingerhout, J. M., Heymans, M. W., Verhagen, A. P., de Vet, H. C., Koes, B. W., & Terwee, C. B. (2011). Measurement properties of translated versions of neck-specific questionnaires: A systematic review. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 11(1), 87. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
22.
Schellingerhout, J. M., Verhagen, A. P., Heymans, M. W., Koes, B. W., Henrica, C., & Terwee, C. B. (2012). Measurement properties of disease-specific questionnaires in patients with neck pain: A systematic review. Quality of Life Research, 21(4), 659–670. CrossRefPubMed
23.
Awata, S., Bech, P., Yoshida, S., Hirai, M., Suzuki, S., Yamashita, M., et al. (2007). Reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index in the context of detecting depression in diabetic patients. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 61(1), 112–119. CrossRefPubMed
24.
de Cock, E. S., Emons, W. H., Nefs, G., Pop, V. J., & Pouwer, F. (2011). Dimensionality and scale properties of the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: The DiaDDzoB study. BMC Psychiatry, 11, 141. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1186/​1471-244x-11-141. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
25.
Hajos, T. R., Pouwer, F., Skovlund, S. E., Den Oudsten, B. L., Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, P. H., Tack, C. J., et al. (2013). Psychometric and screening properties of the WHO-5 well-being index in adult outpatients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetic Medicine, 30(2), e63–e69. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1111/​dme.​12040. CrossRefPubMed
26.
Hsu, L. F., Kao, C. C., Wang, M. Y., Chang, C. J., & Tsai, P. S. (2014). Psychometric testing of a Mandarin Chinese version of the clinically useful depression outcome scale for patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 51(12), 1595–1604. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​ijnurstu.​2014.​05.​004. CrossRefPubMed
27.
Kokoszka, A. (2008). Depression in diabetes self-rating scale: A screening tool. Diabetologia Doswiadczalna i Kliniczna, 8(1), 43–47. Retrieved from http://​www.​ddk.​viamedica.​pl.
28.
Lamers, F., Jonkers, C. C., Bosma, H., Penninx, B. W., Knottnerus, J. A., & van Eijk, J. T. (2008). Summed score of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was a reliable and valid method for depression screening in chronically ill elderly patients. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 61(7), 679–687. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​jclinepi.​2007.​07.​018. CrossRefPubMed
29.
Lehmann, V., Makine, C., Karşıdağ, Ç, Kadıoğlu, P., Karşıdağ, K., & Pouwer, F. (2011). Validation of the Turkish version of the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 11(1), 109. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
30.
Lloyd, C. E., Roy, T., Begum, S., Mughal, S., & Barnett, A. H. (2012). Measuring psychological well-being in South Asians with diabetes; a qualitative investigation of the PHQ-9 and the WHO-5 as potential screening tools for measuring symptoms of depression. Diabetic Medicine, 29(1), 140–147. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1111/​j.​1464-5491.​2011.​03481.​x. CrossRefPubMed
31.
Papageorgiou, K., Vermeulen, K. M., Schroevers, M. J., Buskens, E., & Ranchor, A. V. (2013). Testing the McSad depression specific classification system in patients with somatic conditions: Validity and performance. Health Qual Life Outcomes, 11, 125. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1186/​1477-7525-11-125. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
32.
Rankin, S. H., Galbraith, M. E., & Johnson, S. (1993). Reliability and validity data for a Chinese translation of the center for epidemiological studies-depression. Psychological Reports, 73(3 Pt 2), 1291–1298. https://​doi.​org/​10.​2466/​pr0.​1993.​73.​3f.​1291. CrossRefPubMed
33.
Reddy, P., Philpot, B., Ford, D., & Dunbar, J. A. (2010). Identification of depression in diabetes: The efficacy of PHQ-9 and HADS-D. British Journal of General Practice, 60(575), e239–e245. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
34.
Sousa, V. D., Zauszniewski, J. A., Mendes, I. A., & Zanetti, M. L. (2005). Cross-cultural equivalence and psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Depressive Cognition Scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 13(2), 87–99. CrossRefPubMed
35.
Sousa, V. D., Zanetti, M. L., Zauszniewski, J. A., Mendes, I. A., & Daguano, M. O. (2008). Psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Depressive Cognition Scale in Brazilian adults with diabetes mellitus. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 16(2), 125–135. CrossRefPubMed
36.
Sultan, S., & Fisher, L. (2010). Depression as a proxy of negative affect? A critical examination of the use of the CES-D in type 2 diabetes. Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée/European Review of Applied Psychology, 60(2), 97–104. CrossRef
37.
Stahl, D., Sum, C. F., Lum, S. S., Liow, P. H., Chan, Y. H., Verma, S., et al. (2008). Screening for depressive symptoms: Validation of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in a multiethnic group of patients with diabetes in Singapore. Diabetes Care, 31(6), 1118–1119. CrossRefPubMed
38.
Zauszniewski, J. A., Chung, C., Krafcik, K., & Sousa, V. D. (2001). Psychometric testing of the depressive cognition scale in women with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 9(1), 61–72. PubMedCrossRef
39.
Zauszniewski, J. A., & Graham, G. C. (2009). Comparison of short scales to measure depressive symptoms in elders with diabetes. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 31(2), 219–234. CrossRefPubMed
40.
Zhang, Y., Ting, R., Lam, M., Lam, J., Nan, H., Yeung, R., et al. (2013). Measuring depressive symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 in Hong Kong Chinese subjects with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Affective Disorders, 151(2), 660–666. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​jad.​2013.​07.​014. CrossRefPubMed
41.
Zhang, Y., Ting, R. Z., Lam, M. H., Lam, S. P., Yeung, R. O., Nan, H., et al. (2015). Measuring depression with CES-D in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes: The validity and its comparison to PHQ-9. BMC Psychiatry, 15, 198. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1186/​s12888-015-0580-0. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
42.
Carter, J., Cogo-Moreira, H., Herrmann, N., Merino, D., Yang, P., Shah, B. R., et al. (2016). Validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale in type 2 diabetes. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 90, 91–97. CrossRefPubMed
43.
Janssen, E. P., Köhler, S., Stehouwer, C. D., Schaper, N. C., Dagnelie, P. C., Sep, S. J., et al. (2016). The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 as a screening tool for depression in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: The Maastricht Study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 64(11), e201–e206. CrossRefPubMed
44.
Zimmerman, M., Chelminski, I., McGlinchey, J. B., & Posternak, M. A. (2008). A clinically useful depression outcome scale. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 49(2), 131–140. CrossRefPubMed
45.
Zauszniewski, J. A. (1995). Development and testing of a measure of depressive cognitions in older adults. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 3(1), 31–41. PubMedCrossRef
46.
Cox, J. L., Holden, J. M., & Sagovsky, R. (1987). Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 150(6), 782–786. CrossRefPubMed
47.
Bennett, K., Torrance, G., Boyle, M., Guscott, R., & Moran, L. (2000). Development and testing of a utility measure for major, unipolar depression (McSad). Quality of Life Research, 9(1), 109–120. CrossRefPubMed
48.
Heun, R., Bonsignore, M., Barkow, K., & Jessen, F. (2001). Validity of the five-item WHO Well-Being Index (WHO-5) in an elderly population. European archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 251(2), 27–31. CrossRef
49.
Whiting, P., Rutjes, A. W., Reitsma, J. B., Bossuyt, P. M., & Kleijnen, J. (2003). The development of QUADAS: A tool for the quality assessment of studies of diagnostic accuracy included in systematic reviews. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 3(1), 25. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
50.
Mokkink, L. B., Terwee, C. B., Knol, D. L., Stratford, P. W., Alonso, J., Patrick, D. L., et al. (2010). The COSMIN checklist for evaluating the methodological quality of studies on measurement properties: A clarification of its content. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 10, 22. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1186/​1471-2288-10-22. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
51.
Luckett, T., Butow, P. N., King, M. T., Oguchi, M., Heading, G., Hackl, N. A., et al. (2010). A review and recommendations for optimal outcome measures of anxiety, depression and general distress in studies evaluating psychosocial interventions for English-speaking adults with heterogeneous cancer diagnoses. Support Care Cancer, 18(10), 1241–1262. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s00520-010-0932-8. CrossRefPubMed
52.
Torbey, E., Pachana, N. A., & Dissanayaka, N. N. (2015). Depression rating scales in Parkinson’s disease: A critical review updating recent literature. Journal of Affective Disorders, 184, 216–224. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​jad.​2015.​05.​059. CrossRefPubMed
53.
Vilagut, G., Forero, C., Adroher, N., Olariu, E., Cella, D., Alonso, J., et al. (2015). Testing the PROMIS® Depression measures for monitoring depression in a clinical sample outside the US. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 68, 140–150. CrossRefPubMed
54.
Pilkonis, P. A., Yu, L., Dodds, N. E., Johnston, K. L., Maihoefer, C. C., & Lawrence, S. M. (2014). Validation of the depression item bank from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) in a three-month observational study. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 56, 112–119. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​jpsychires.​2014.​05.​010. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
55.
Kim, J., Chung, H., Askew, R. L., Park, R., Jones, S. M., Cook, K. F., et al. (2015). Translating CESD-20 and PHQ-9 scores to PROMIS depression. Assessment. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1177/​1073191115607042​. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
56.
Choi, S. W., Schalet, B., Cook, K. F., & Cella, D. (2014). Establishing a common metric for depressive symptoms: Linking the BDI-II, CES-D, and PHQ-9 to PROMIS depression. Psychological Assessment, 26(2), 513–527. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1037/​a0035768. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
57.
Amtmann, D., Kim, J., Chung, H., Bamer, A. M., Askew, R. L., Wu, S., et al. (2014). Comparing CESD-10, PHQ-9, and PROMIS depression instruments in individuals with multiple sclerosis. Rehabilitation Psychology, 59(2), 220–229. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1037/​a0035919. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
58.
Wong, C. K., Chen, J., Yu, C. L., Sham, M., & Lam, C. L. (2015). Systematic review recommends the European organization for research and treatment of cancer colorectal cancer-specific module for measuring quality of life in colorectal cancer patients. J Clinical Epidemiology, 68(3), 266–278. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​jclinepi.​2014.​09.​021. CrossRef
59.
Wigham, S., & McConachie, H. (2014). Systematic review of the properties of tools used to measure outcomes in anxiety intervention studies for children with autism spectrum disorders. PLoS ONE, 9(1), e85268. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1371/​journal.​pone.​0085268. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
60.
Carleton R. N., Thibodeau M. A., Teale M. J., Welch P. G., Abrams M. P., Robinson T., & Asmundson G. J. (2013). The center for epidemiologic studies depression scale: a review with theoretical and empirical examination of item content and factor structure. PLoS ONE, 8(3), e58067. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1371/​journal.​pone.​0058067. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral