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01-07-2017 | Complications | Review | Article

Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders

Vitamin D and diabetes mellitus: Causal or casual association?

Journal: Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders

Authors: M. Grammatiki, E. Rapti, S. Karras, R. A. Ajjan, Kalliopi Kotsa

Publisher: Springer US

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Abstract

The incidence of both type 2 and type 1 diabetes mellitus has been increasing worldwide. Vitamin D deficiency, or the awareness of its prevalence, has also been increasing. Vitamin D may have a role in the pathogenic mechanisms predisposing to type 2 diabetes by modulating insulin resistance and/or pancreatic β-cell function. Vitamin D status or elements involved in its activation or transport may also be involved in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus through immunomodulatory role . Based on these observations a potential association between vitamin D and diabetes has been hypothesized. In this review we discuss up to date evidence linking vitamin D with the development of diabetes. Moreover, the role of vitamin D supplementation in the prevention of both types of diabetes is analysed together with its role in improving glycemic control in diabetic patients. We also address the potential role of vitamin D deficiency in the development of macro- and microvascular complications in diabetes. Finally, we provide recommendation for Vitamin D therapy in diabetes in view of current evidence and highlight areas for potential future research in this area.
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