Purpose of Review
Seven trials of new agents to treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have been performed to assess cardiovascular (CV) safety. A significant amount of information regarding the effects of drugs in three classes is available, with new data from multiple other trials expected shortly. This article provides a summary of recently completed trials.
The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors studied thus far do not alter the risk of major adverse CV events (MACE). Glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists liraglutide and semaglutide, and the sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor empagliflozin, significantly reduced the risk of MACE. Empagliflozin also decreased the risk of hospitalization for heart failure. Agents demonstrating a CV outcome benefit also improved parameters of renal function.
Several newer antihyperglycemic agents have been found to reduce the risk of important CV complications in high-risk patients with T2DM. Future trials are needed to assess the effects of additional drugs and the impact of therapy in lower risk patients and provide additional information regarding non-CV safety outcomes.