Purpose of Review
This review summarizes the most recent literature on dietary patterns and their effects on cardiovascular health among patients with diabetes.
Studies identified examined low-fat, low-carbohydrate, low-glycemic index, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and Mediterranean dietary patterns. A limited number of short-term studies showed that intake of low-fat, low-carbohydrate, and low-glycemic index dietary patterns reduced body weight and blood pressure among individuals with diabetes. Short-term consumption of the DASH dietary pattern reduced blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in patients with diabetes. Most convincing evidence supports the effectiveness of Mediterranean dietary patterns in cardiovascular disease prevention by reducing cardiovascular risk factors and mortality among patients with diabetes, as supported by a prospective cohort study, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analyses.
Among the dietary patterns identified, Mediterranean dietary patterns should be considered as primary nutritional recommendation for cardiovascular disease prevention among individuals with diabetes.