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02-05-2018 | Cardiovascular disorders | Review | Article

Clinical features and therapeutic perspectives on hypertension in diabetics

Journal:
Hypertension Research

Authors: Shigehiro Katayama, Masako Hatano, Masashi Issiki

Publisher: Nature Publishing Group UK

Abstract

Over 50% of patients with diabetes mellitus, either type 1 or 2, ultimately develop hypertension as a complication. In diabetics, this further increases the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) by 2- to 3-fold and accelerates the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Arteriosclerosis, a clinical feature of hypertension in diabetics, develops and advances from a young age. Therefore, in providing treatment, it is necessary to evaluate the degree of arteriosclerosis. Diabetic patients are encouraged to strictly control their blood glucose levels. Recently developed drugs, such as GLP-1 receptor agonists, DPP-4 inhibitors and SGLT2 inhibitors, also have hypotensive actions, making them ideal for use in diabetics with hypertension. SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists reportedly suppress the onset and progression of CVD, as well as diabetic nephropathy. The possibility of hypoglycemia triggering blood pressure elevation and arrhythmia has been noted, so a key point here is not to cause hypoglycemia. In selecting hypotensive agents, we must choose types that do not aggravate insulin resistance and engage in hypotensive treatment that also considers both nocturnal and morning hypertension. In addition, facing the onset of an aging society, there is a growing need for treatments that do not cause excessive blood pressure reduction or hypoglycemia. Favorable lifelong blood pressure and glucose control are increasingly important for the treatment of diabetes accompanied by hypertension.

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