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08-18-2018 | Bone health | Review | Article

Lifestyle Management of Diabetes: Implications for the Bone-Vascular Axis

Current Diabetes Reports

Authors: Silvia Pieralice, Francesca Vigevano, Rossella Del Toro, Nicola Napoli, Ernesto Maddaloni

Publisher: Springer US


Purpose of Review

To describe the main pathways involved in the interplay between bone and cardiovascular disease and to highlight the possible impact of physical activity and medical nutrition therapy on the bone-vascular axis.

Recent Findings

Diabetes increases the risk of both cardiovascular disease and bone fragility fractures, sharing common pathogenic pathways, including OPG/RANK/RANKL, the FGF23/Klotho axis, calciotropic hormones, and circulating osteogenic cells. This may offer new therapeutic targets for future treatment strategies. As lifestyle intervention is the cornerstone of diabetes treatment, there is potential for an impact on the bone-vascular axis.


Evidence published suggests the bone-vascular axis encompasses key pathways for cardiovascular disease. This, along with studies showing physical activity plays a crucial role in the prevention of both bone fragility and cardiovascular disease, suggests that lifestyle intervention incorporating exercise and diet may be helpful in managing skeletal health decline in diabetes. Studies investigating the controversial role of high-fiber diet and dietary vitamin D/calcium on bone and cardiovascular health suggest an overall benefit, but further investigations are needed in this regard.

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